Dairy Culture Terminology & Use Information

Mesophilic Aroma Cultures

  • (LLD) = Lactococcus lactis subsp. biovar diacetylactis

  • (LMC) = Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris

  • Temperature growth range = 5° - 38°C (41°- 100° F)

  • Optimum growth and diacetyl flavor producing range = 18° - 25°C (64°- 77° F)

  • Production of CO2

  • Lactococcus lactis biovar diacetylactis also will produce lactic acid in addition to diacetyl and CO2

Mesophilic Lactic Acid Starter Cultures

  • (LL) = Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis

  • (LLC) = Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris

  • The two main lactic acid producing bacteria used by the cheese industry

  • Homofermentive lactococci, primarily used for producing lactic acid.

  • Temperature growth range = 10° - 42°C (50°- 108° F)

  • Optimum growth rate = 25° - 30°C (77°- 86° F)

  • Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris  is more salt sensitive (<4%) and more temperature sensitive (40°C/104°F) than Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis

Miscellaneous Cultures

  • (LA) = Lactobacillus acidophilus

  • (BBL) = Bifidobacterium longum

  • (BBI) = Bifidobacterium infantis

  • (PS) = Propionibacterium shermanii

  • Optimum growth rate temperature = 37° - 41°C (98°- 106° F)

  • Optimum growth and flavor production range will vary for each individual culture

Thermophilic Acid Starter Cultures

  • (ST) = Streptococcus thermophilus

  • (LB) = Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus

  • (LH) = Lactobacillus helveticus

  • (LBL) = Lactobacillus lactis

  • (LBC) = Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei

  • Temperature growth range = 20° - 52°C (68°- 125° F)

  • Optimum growth and flavor production range will vary for each individual culture