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Home :: Guide to Cultures

Guide to Cultures

There is a large variety of cultures used in producing cheese and other dairy products such as buttermilk and yogurt. Refer to the following chart for a general guideline as to what cultures are used for which dairy product.

Guide to what cultures are used for which cheeses & other dairy products

 

Cheese Applications

Product Name

Type

Contains

(see key below)

Primary Applications**

May also be used for

MA series*

mesophilic

LL, LLC

Semi-hard American-style cheeses, esp: Cheddar, Colby

Cottage Cheese, Chevre , Feta

MM series*

mesophilic

LL, LLC, LLD

Soft ripened or unripened specialty cheeses, esp: Brie, Camembert, Gouda, Chevre, Blue

Feta, Cream Cheese

Flora Danica

mesophilic

LL, LLC, LLD, LMC

Soft ripened or unripened specialty cheeses, esp: goat-milk cheeses, Chevre

Havarti, Baby Swiss, Gouda, Edam, Blue, Brie, Camembert, Feta, Cream Cheese

Aroma B

mesophilic

LL, LLC, LLD, LMC

Soft ripened or unripened specialty cheeses, esp: goat-milk cheeses, Chevre

Havarti, Baby Swiss, Gouda, Edam, Blue, Brie, Camembert, Feta, Cream Cheese

MA 4000 series*

meso/thermo blend

LL, LLC, LLD, ST

Soft ripened or unripened specialty cheeses, esp: Brie, Camembert, Gouda, Chevre, Blue

Semi-hard cheeses, esp: "farmhouse-style" cheeses such as Farmhouse Cheddar

RA series

meso/thermo blend

LL, LLC, ST

Cheddar

Other semi-hard cheeses

KAZU

meso/thermo blend

LL, LLC, LLD, LH

Farmhouse Cheddar

Sheep-milk cheeses, ie: Tomme

Feta blend FT001

meso/thermo blend

LL, LLC, ST, LBL, LBB

Feta

-

MT1

meso/thermo blend

LL, LLC, ST, LBB

Feta

-

Thermo B

thermophilic

ST, LBB

Mozzarella, Provolone

Other Italian cheeses

Thermo C

thermophilic

ST, LH

Swiss

Italian cheeses

TA 60 series*

thermophilic

ST (fast strains)

Mozzarella, Provolone, Swiss

Other Italian cheeses

TA 50 series*

thermophilic

ST (slow strains)

Muenster (American style)

Mozzarella, Provolone

TM81

thermophilic

ST, LBB

Mozzarella, Provolone

Other Italian cheeses

SU CASU

thermophilic

ST, LBL, LH

Parmesan, Swiss

Asiago, Romano

MD series

mesophilic

LLD

Adjunct culture; enhances aroma & flavor (buttery notes) with some acid production as well as gas production; often used as adjunct in soft ripened cheeses, Brie, Camembert, Blue

-

LM57

mesophilic

LMC

Adjunct culture; enhances aroma & flavor (buttery notes) with little acid production; often used as adjunct in Blues

-

LH100

thermophilic

LH, LBL

Adjunct culture; provides nutty, sweet flavor notes and softens texture; often used as adjunct in Mozzarella, Provolone, Swiss, Cheddar

-

LB340

thermophilic

LBB

Adjunct culture, enhances flavor; often used as adjunct in Italian-style cheeses

-

Propionibacteria

thermophilic

PP

Adjunct culture; produces gas ("eyes"); used as adjunct in Swiss-style cheeses

-

* A "series" is a set of cultures that work and function interchangeably. The purpose of offering a series is to help prevent bacteriophage, also known as "phage," a problem sometimes experienced by commercial-level producers of dairy products. Home or hobby cheesemakers usually do not have problems with bacteriophage and can use any cultures within a series with very similar results.

** Many culture blends can be used for multiple cheese types -- personal preference is a factor. Consult your recipe or feel free to contact us to discuss which culture(s) we might recommend for your specific application.

 

Yogurt & Other Fermented Milk Applications

Product Name

Type

Contains

(see key below)

Primary Applications

May also be used for

ABY2C (MILD)

thermophilic

ST, LBB, LBL, LA, BL

Yogurt

  • Very mild flavor
  • Smooth, very heavy body
  • Minimal post-acidification
  • Contains probiotic bacteria

-

ABY653 (MEDIUM)

thermophilic

ST, LBB, LBL, LA, BL

Yogurt

  • Mild flavor
  • Smooth, heavy body 
  • Slight post-acidification
  • Contains probiotic bacteria

-

ABY611 (TART)

thermophilic

ST, LBB, LA, BL

Yogurt

  • Traditional yogurt flavor
  • Smooth body 
  • Moderate post-acidification
  • Contains probiotic bacteria

-

Dairy-free Yogurt

(Vegetal)

thermophilic

BB, BL, LA, LC, LBB, LR, ST

Yogurt - bacteria blend especially for making dairy-free yogurt; contains probiotic bacteria

-

Kefir C

mesophilic

Proprietary blend of lactococci, lactobacilli, leuconostoc & k. marxianus bacteria

Kefir - traditional kefir flavor produced by specific blend of bacteria, NOT grains

-

901 BM/SC

mesophilic

LL, LLC, LLD, LMC

Sour Cream, Buttermilk

Fresh cheeses, esp. cream cheese

 

Dairy Culture Terminology & Use Information

Mesophilic Lactic Acid Starter Cultures

  • (LL) = Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis

  • (LLC) = Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris

  • The two main lactic acid producing bacteria used by the cheese industry

  • Homofermentive lactococci, primarily used for producing lactic acid.

  • Temperature growth range = 10° - 42°C (50°- 104°F)

  • Optimum growth rate = 25° - 30°C (77°- 86°F)

  • Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris  is more salt sensitive (<4%) and more temperature sensitive (40°C/104°F) than Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis

Mesophilic Aroma Cultures

  • (LLD) = Lactococcus lactis subsp. biovar diacetylactis

  • (LMC) = Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris

  • Temperature growth range = 5° - 38°C (41°- 100°F)

  • Optimum growth and diacetyl flavor producing range = 18° - 25°C (64°- 77°F)

  • Production of CO2

  • Lactococcus lactis biovar diacetylactis also will produce lactic acid in addition to diacetyl and CO2

Thermophilic Acid Starter Cultures

  • (ST) = Streptococcus thermophilus

  • (LBB) = Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus

  • (LH) = Lactobacillus helveticus

  • (LBL) = Lactobacillus delbrueckii  subsp. lactis

  • (LBC) = Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei

  • (LC) = Lactobacillus casei

  • Temperature growth range = 20° - 52°C (68°- 125°F)

  • Optimum growth and flavor production range will vary for each individual culture

Miscellaneous Cultures

  • (LA) = Lactobacillus acidophilus

  • (BL) = Bifidobacterium lactis

  • (PS) = Propionibacterium shermanii

  • (LR) = Lactobacillus rhamnosus

  • (BB) = Bifidobacterium bifidum

  • Optimum growth rate temperature = 37° - 41°C (98°- 106°F)

  • Optimum growth and flavor production range will vary for each individual culture